Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. It's a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan towards the north; Tajikistan to the southeast; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest.
Once area of the Turkic Khaganate and then Timurid Empires, the region that today includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads. The region was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire throughout the 1800s, as well as in 1924 what is now Uzbekistan was a bordered constituent republic from the Ussr, referred to as Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). Following the breakup from the Soviet Union, it declared independence because the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially celebrated the following day).
Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The country's official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population; however, Russian remains in widespread use. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, accompanied by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%). Most Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is part of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), UN, and also the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, non-governmental human rights organizations define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".
Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and natural gas. Despite the declared purpose of transition to a market economy, its government is constantly on the maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic "import substitution".